Renal Disease (Chronic Kidney Disease – CKD)


Renal disease or chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when there is damage to the kidneys and it does not filter the blood effectively, as a result your kidneys do not function properly. There are are five stages of renal disease, and each stage is related to the level of the kidney function and kidney damage. A guide to each of the stages is as follows, Stages I and II normal to mild kidney damage, Stage III moderate kidney damage, Stage IV severe kidney damage, and Stage V kidney failure.

Some risk factors for renal disease include high blood pressure, diabetes, being obese, having a family history of kidney failure, smoking, aged of 60 years, heart problems or stroke, history of acute kidney injury, and certain ethnic groups (such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders). Common symptoms include a change in the frequency and quantity of urine passed, blood in the urine, back pain, burning sensations when passing urine, puffy eyes and ankles (odoema), loss of appetite, and high blood pressure. However, if not diagnosed properly or poorly managed complications can occur, such as renal failure.

To diagnose renal disease a series of tests must be undertaken, including urine tests, blood tests, imaging and scans, and biopsies.


Nutritional strategies will be developed to ensure you are managing your renal disease. Diet requirements vary depending on the stage of your renal disease, therefore a multi-phase approach to diet progression will be undertaken. During the assessment, an in depth analysis will be conducted, with a focus on your weight and body measurements, blood test results, and diet history. An individualised plan will be developed, taking into account your lifestyle, culture and eating habits to ensure achievable goals.


Kidney Disease – Kidney Health Australia


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PEN. (2016). Chronic Kidney Disease: Background. Retrieved 23 January, 2017, from